The Qualitative Influence of the Independent Media (8)

“Kuang Chung-Shiang[1] argues Taiwan has a population of independent media audience about ten to twenty thousand. If local independent media do more collective actions for developing people’s public consciousness (e.g. reporting particular social issues together at the same time), a dissenting power could be made for pressuring the authorities (to do more for tackling the concerned issues actively).”[2]

Kuang argues Taiwanese independent media have their basic audience. The fact of the existence of the audience proves that the activistic media in Taiwan do have certain social influence, meaning a group of locals is recognizing the media’s journalistic works. Especially, through the internet-based independent media people can follow the “real” news and share them with others easily. The point is how to effectively convert such influence into a concrete social power to pressure the authorities’ policy-making.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

[1] Kuang Chung-Shiang (Guan Zhongxiang管中祥) is Associate Professor of the Department of Communication, National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan (臺灣中正大學傳播學系).

[2] See: Chyng (2009). Farmers Get Nothing: Long Road For Independent Media (農再吃癟獨立媒體路迢迢). Retrieved 1 November, 2011, from the Chyng blog:

The Qualitative Influence of the Independent Media (7)

In Hong Kong and Taiwan, the two independent media movements are encountering a negative socio-political situation different from that of the “IMC”: for example, the social role of “” and “” is generally not to be understood or recognized by most people living in the societies. Obviously, the form of this phenomenon is related to the historical developing context of Chinese political civilization. As mentioned, the main function of independent media is to create a social power against the dominative pressure from the Establishment on people that it is valuable for activists and dissentients wherever in the East or in the West. However, the point is that the basic attitude of the Chinese people and even of the rulings to the positive role of the independent media is not so clear in the two societies. The evidence of arguing this is that, for instance, “” is still not to be legally recognized by the Taiwanese authorities as “media organization” for journalism, like a general media. This fact shows the current difficult development of the independent media that is connected with the relatively complicated socio-political circumstance formed in the Chinese societies.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

無政府性釋義 (5)

(2) 反政府-反抗權力宰制的具體立場



(摘自: 無政府與全球化. 台北: 國立政治大學. 2003)

The Qualitative Influence of the Independent Media (6)

Internet independent media, however, have certain degree of limitation on influencing the globalizing circumstance, which depends on: (1) how much political pressure would be put on people’s daily life; (2) how the changing tendency of social atmosphere is going to be; and (3) what the distinctive nationalities or values held by the majorities are. For example, the “IMC” played an important role in catalyzing the “Anti-WTO Movement” in Seattle in 1999. During the movement, the U.S. government, the host of the WTO conference in the year, adopted a typical public security strategy (e.g. to deploy “sufficient” police forces at the locale of the conference, etc.) to suppress the activism on the street. However, the public, including the local and the global ones, is willing to respect and support the dissenting voices delivered by the independent media: the monstrous organization having the absolute power to make the rules to control the development of world economy must be criticized and reviewed immediately. At least, the “IMC” has room to clearly express its anti-Establishment stance by exercising the right of free speech to carrying out such kind of social movement that was recognized as a significant rise of global media activism.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

The Qualitative Influence of the Independent Media (5)

Thirdly, “” and “” both realize that their media social movements are being carried out in the context of globalization. For the two media, the primary aim of the practices is to enlarge their influence on the current development of civil society in a globalization era. Basically speaking, the Internet can have a role in this concern. And, the running of the internet-based independent media can help consolidate people’s consciousness on public issues and create a solidarity spirit for global citizens. Thanks to the Internet’s real-time operating character, the door for a world social movement is open. For this, the American “IMC” is a good example: the foundation of the media for anti-globalization gave rise to the blooming of the internet-based independent media movement around the globe. In East Asia, “” and “” have a close cooperative relationship with each other for social movement practice. At the observing point of the global development of independent media, we can discover an interesting phenomenon: neo-liberal/laissez-faire/capitalist economy nowadays has been globally developing on the one hand, and the rise of social movement is also globalizing on the other. The practice of the people’s collective movement is no longer restricted within a single region or country, but is carried out through a process of trans-regionalization of social action on the earth – not only can locals get the fresh news about the development of foreign social movements, but can give out their support through internet independent media also. By realizing the trans-regional communication, the foreign/local differentiation of socio-political and economic issues is gradually diminished that all people are able to understand the fact of homogeneity of their living circumstance and to have enough knowledge to think more about how to tackle the common issues collectively. On the scene of globalization, when such communicative interaction between different people develops, the power of the world social movement is to be further strengthened, having the weight to overturn the present politico-economic domination on all humans contributed by world superpowers.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

The Qualitative Influence of the Independent Media (4)

Internet media, as having the character of realizing the rapidity of information propagation, are facilitating a positive development of interaction between social campaign groups and common people, fostering the establishment of a public opinion towards social issues reflection. By using the media, people can share their ideas about reforming the current society and receive direct feedback from others. This approach to deliberations for social development is more flexible than the traditional one: to participate in social movements organized by activists and campaign groups. In addition, the popularization of the use of the Internet actually realizes a no-border communication between different peoples around the globe, actualizing the global transnational connection between social movement organizers and supporters and helping the form of a world social power for world citizens. Therefore, it is noteworthy that to set up and operate an independent media on the Internet becomes one of the workable approaches to social movement practice nowadays.[1]

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

[1] “…perhaps the most dramatic change in social movement organizing in the last few decades has been the impact of the Internet and, more generally, of electronic communication. …Technologies that operate over the Internet offer so many different kinds of support to social movements that it may be reductive to regard them as simply vehicles for ‘message transmission.’ When combined with their implications, digital media have become a partial substitute for traditional forms of social movement organization as well.” See: Tarrow, Sidney G. (2011). Power in Movement: Social Movements and Contentious Politics. New York: Cambridge University. p. 137. “Political action is made easier, faster and more universal by the developing technologies. ICTs (information and communication technologies) lower the costs and obstacles of organizing collective action significantly.” See: Donk, Wim Van De; Loader, Brian D.; Nixon, Paul G.; Rucht, Dieter (2004). Cyberprotest: New Media, Citizens, and Social Movements. New York: Routledge. p. 97. “The Net, we are told, is bringing into being a cottage industry of small independent producers who are sweeping away ‘the monolithic empires of mass media’ (Negroponte, 1996:57). It is generating a new culture that is critical, selective, and participatory. People can pull from the Web and digital media what they want, rather than settling for what is pushed at them (Negroponte, 1996:84). More generally, the Net is engendering an egalitarian, emancipated, and interconnected world – ‘cyberspace’ – that is reconfiguring the offline world in which we live, and making it a better place (Poster, 1997). …It seems worth investigating, therefore, whether the Net makes it easier than before to publish alternative opinions, and also whether Internet technology makes possible new ways of doing journalism.” See: Couldry, Nick; Curran, James (2003). Contesting Media Power: Alternative Media in a Networked World. Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 227-228.

無政府性釋義 (4)



(摘自: 無政府與全球化. 台北: 國立政治大學. 2003)