“A system of upbringing may completely deprive a man of his freedom and incapacitate him for freedom of judgment… . Crystallized, hardened public opinion becomes violence upon man. Man can be a slave to public opinion, a slave to custom, to morals, to judgments and opinions which are imposed by society.”

— Nicholas Berdyaev



“Information explosion makes us anxious because it demoralizes the practice of self-judgment (or ‘independent judgment’ termed by William Godwin) for knowledge making. Old men constructed their theories by self-judgment, needless to check with the “big names’”. Why? It is because self-judgment is natural, moral and reasonable. However, we are now not allowed to make ours with self-judgment, but have to work with the “endorsed” theories for justifying our own ideas. Since then, we have lost our instinct of self-judgment. Who can escape from this anxiety of losing the instinct? From researching on the truth to studying who have spoken on the truth as well as to considering the old men’s on the older men’s on the truth, we are far away from the truth itself, and become political.

— Levon Kwok