The Foreword

“Information explosion makes us anxious because it demoralizes the practice of self-judgment (or ‘independent judgment’ termed by William Godwin) for knowledge making. Old men constructed their theories by self-judgment, needless to check with the “big names’”. Why? It is because self-judgment is natural, moral and reasonable. However, we are now not allowed to make ours with self-judgment, but have to work with the “endorsed” theories for justifying our own ideas. Since then, we have lost our instinct of self-judgment. Who can escape from this anxiety of losing the instinct? From researching on the truth to studying who have spoken on the truth as well as to considering the old men’s on the older men’s on the truth, we are far away from the truth itself, and become political.

— Levon Kwok


“A system of upbringing may completely deprive a man of his freedom and incapacitate him for freedom of judgment …. Crystallized, hardened public opinion becomes violence upon man. Man can be a slave to public opinion, a slave to custom, to morals, to judgments and opinions which are imposed by society.

— Nicholas Berdyaev



A New Approach to Understanding the Contemporary China (5)

We are focusing on examining an emerging social power which represents the rise of anti-globalization movement. This kind of social power is always shifting its shape, density and capacity based on different politico-economic climates and social conditions. Of course, it is possible to measure this power by following the quantitative method mentioned above: to produce lots of statistic figures related to the existing of the social power. However, the figures can only indicate the “status quo” of the power sustaining in a very short time. To produce complex quantitative data is, in our research context, not a right approach to constructing a qualitative understanding on the current ongoing development of the social power for common people’s voices.

Here is an alternative approach to discovering the significance of the practices of the independent media activism as an influential social power developing in Hong Kong and Taiwan.

We will get start with revealing and analyzing the unique characteristics of the practices of the independent media movement in the Chinese societies. Comparing the characteristics of the movement practices with the Western counterparts’ and discovering the hidden connection between the contemporary social movement and the Chinese traditional thought – Daoism are the next two important steps. There is no doubt that Chinese society as a whole has been impacted by the domination of globalized capitalist economy and Western scientific civilization. However, the Chinese is still keeping its unique thinking logic and its clear attitude toward the contemporary changing world in a distinctive historical context. This can be evidenced by the fact that a “dialectical adaptive logic” has been embedded, developed and working in Chinese people’s mind, influencing the development of Chinese society from past to now. The form of this special logic for life is made by the long-term feudalism of the ancient China and the Westerns’ “colonization” with the Communist ruling over the modern China that the Chinese have never had the opportunity to develop their socio-political sense “to live their own life”.

Today, the brain of the West has dominated most of the academic studies on contemporary China, seeing the Chinese as the “follower”, ignoring the existence of the distinctive logic for harmonizing the hard social reality with the “to-be-oneself” idealism of the Chinese people. Therefore, how to open up a new approach to consider this “home-grown” logic is a crucial thing. Through our study on the independent media in Hong Kong and Taiwan, we discover that certain Chinese traditional thoughts can play a role in explaining various social phenomena emerging in the contemporary Chinese society, meanwhile the logic is fully considered.

Finally, a completely new theory – “Open Structure” is to be presented not only for embodying the logic’s existentiality but also for interpreting the close relationship between the Chinese society, the characteristics of the media movement practices and Daoism. Through the theory, a bold attempt to examine the significant reflection of today’s Chinese people on the nature of the globalized civilization by reconnecting the ancient thinking with the contemporary reality will be realized. Also, the theory is anticipated to help open up an advanced construction of an open knowledge structure beyond existing East-West epistemological perspectives, on which the next stage of human civilization for all people can be based.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

耶穌言行的無政府性 (3)



(摘自: 無政府與全球化. 台北: 國立政治大學. 2003)

耶穌言行的無政府性 (2)

上帝憐憫、體恤萬民苦難,祂要世人知道苦難的原由:世界上每一個人都帶著永遠無法洗脫的原罪。我們無法追究這種罪的成因。人人生來就有罪,這根源於上帝創世之時,亞當與夏娃(Adam and Eve)因偷嚐「禁果」所犯下的。現世人類對這段「真理」陳述無法知道更多,亦無法挽回這個因欲望驅使所犯下的罪業。所以耶穌說:天國近了。在世界末日之時,上帝將審判所有人。凡未抱悔改之心的「罪人」,必下地獄。只有全心信仰基督、相信人子來世的目的是為了洗脫人們的罪,天堂之門是打開的,所有人將獲得永恆的生命。



(摘自: 無政府與全球化. 台北: 國立政治大學. 2003)

No Relationship with the Cultural Difference between the East and the West (4)

Different from the Oriental’s thinking logic, the West has a long history of positioning and categorizing the “unknown” by constructing a stronghold of absolute knowledge system. For this, the rise of natural science[1] is a good example. The construction of so-called scientific knowledge as a Western civilization tradition has affected people’s spirit, thinking logic and way of life in every aspect of human society. In social sciences, the impact of the development of the scientific spirit embodies in the inclination of trying to present a “fixed picture” of social phenomenon: taking social movement practice as an example, why the people do it; how the people carry out the movement; what the major factors are the causes of the movement; what the approaches to participating in the movement are provided at the specific moment are all needed to be studied in the scientific methodology. Therefore, from this point we can understand the practice form of the independent media movement in the West is impacted by this kind of reasoning: for instance, social movement activists would carry out their action by creating a “systemic tool” for promoting their practice – building up an online website or blog as a public communicative platform for expanding their social influence. By clicking on the platform, people can understand the movement’s idealism and practical goal in an ordered context. After that, they can decide whether they want to support the activism ongoing. Through this approach, people’s social power can be brought together and strengthened further effectively.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

[1] “By the mid-nineteenth century, science was having an ever-greater impact on European life. The Scientific Revolution of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries had fundamentally transformed the Western worldview and led to a modern, rational approach to the study of the natural world….Moreover, the technical advances of the early Industrial Revolution had depended little on pure science and much more on the practical experiments of technologically oriented amateur inventors. Advances in industrial technology, however, fed an interest in basic scientific research, which in the 1830s and afterward resulted in a rash of basic scientific discoveries that were soon converted into technological improvements that affected everybody. …The steadily increasing and often dramatic material gains generated by science and technology led to a growing faith in the benefits of science. The popularity of scientific and technological achievement produced a widespread acceptance of the scientific method, based on observation, experiment, and logical analysis, as the only path to objective truth and objective reality.” See: Spielvogel, Jackson J. (2010). Western Civilization. USA: Cengage Learning. p. 783.

No “Label” (5)

Similar to the alienation of the use of currency, the reasoning method of “induction” – to label social phenomena by linking up known theories, thoughts and principles and by categorizing things as a typical approach to “scientific knowledge production” – is to be impotent and needed to be reflected nowadays. Through labeling, we seem to have deeper understanding on the things studied. However, by following this approach we would unconsciously ignore the importance of the nature and characteristics of the things developing within distinctive historical contexts when enjoying the “academic achievement” brought by the doing, being misled by the “power of human knowledge” based on the so-called “absolute effectiveness of the method endorsed by the name of “science”, blurring our original goal for understanding the existing within the Nature on the Earth. Human beings are not the “creator” of the world, but created by the world. However, human knowledge labeled by “science” makes everyone believe in it without reflection. This is a very obstacle of human civilization progression. Therefore, it is certain to say when we get used to put any social phenomena into a fixed understanding system of human knowledge development through labeling things, we lose a significant opportunity to rediscover the only world without the interference from power.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

No “Label” (3)

Some sociologists are so keen to analyze the historical development of social movement. They categorize and compare known theories and practice cases of social movement in human society in different ages, creating various specialized terms for labeling the “new”, trying to facilitate the structuring of knowledge systematization. For example, the term “Left/Right Wing” is commonly used as ideology which refers to a group of individuals who hold specific positions, ideas or opinions on how people should live in politics, economics, and humanities categorized by academicians on the intellectual scene. Also, the so-called “-ism” is another one for solidifying any theories.

Generally speaking, this labeling behaviour of knowledge makers can be significant: it contributes to the enlightenment of human understanding. However, the behaviour simultaneously produces many negative effects on civilization development, such as ossifying people’s thinking, causing power fetishism under the “scientific umbrella”, etc., that does not conform to the original aim of the doing. Here, “derailing from its original” is a kind of alienation, which is one of the characters of human developing tendency.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

The Contents: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement – Case Studies of the Independent Media in Hong Kong and Taiwan

Chapter One The Introduction
Section 1 The Contemporary World and Anti-Globalization Movement
Section 2 What is Independent Media?
Section 3 The Contemporary Development of the Chinese Societies
Section 4 The Independent Media – “” and “”
Section 5 Globalization and the Media Activism
Section 6 The New Approach to Understanding the Contemporary China
Chapter Two The Theories Inspiring Anti-Globalization Movement – Anti-Capitalism and the Reflection on Democracy
Section 1 The Meaning of Globalization: From Ulrich Beck’s Vision and the Rise of Anti-Globalization
Part 1 The Connotation of the Terms: Anti-/Alter-Globalization
Part 2 Alter-Globalization Movement Promoted by “WSF” & “ATTAC”
Section 2 Anti-Globalization on the Economic Issue: Capitalism and Its Problems
Part 1 The Base of the Economic Inequality: Pierre-Joseph Proudhon Criticizing the “Property”
Part 2 The Quantification of Capitalism Violating the Nature – Murray Bookchin’s Reflection on “Environmentalism”
Section 3 Anti-Globalization on the Political Issue: The Reflection on Representative Democracy
Part 1 From the Beginning of Democracy: K.H.Z. Solneman’s Viewpoints and Weakness of Global Governmental Power
Part 2 Constructing a New Form of Political Power: The Games between Governments
Chapter Three Independent Media as the Anti-Globalization Movement in Hong Kong: “”
Section 1 From Globalization to the Development of the Chinese Independent Media
Section 2 The History of Independent Media in Hong Kong
Section 3 The Beginning of “”
Section 4 The Funding Issue of the Media
Section 5 The Effects of “”
Section 6 The Stance of Anti-Monopoly
Section 7 The Connection between “” and the Mainland China
Chapter Four Independent Media as the Anti-Globalization Movement in Taiwan: “”
Section 1 The Socio-Political Background of Modern Taiwan
Section 2 The Main Works of the Media
Section 3 The Social Background of the Beginning of the Media
Section 4 Anti-Globalization and “”
Section 5 As a Kind of Diversified Social Movement
Section 6 The Viewpoints on Mainstream Media
Section 7 Reflecting on the Media’s Funding Issue
Section 8 Connected with Social Movement Organizations
Section 9 The Differences between “” and “”
Section 10 The Objection to “Principle”
Section 11 The Difficulties and Challenges
Chapter Five The Characteristics of the Independent Media in Hong Kong and Taiwan
Section 1 The Qualitative Influence of the Independent Media
Section 2 Playing a Role in the Developing History of Independent Media
Section 3 No “Label”
Section 4 No Relationship with the Cultural Difference between the East and the West
Conclusion The Daoist Characters of the Independent Media and Modern China
Section 1 Anti-Globalization Movement as an “Ecology” of Human Society
Section 2 The Daoist logic of “”: The Abandonment of “Name (名)”
Section 3 The World without Discrimination: From Yu Ying-Shih’s “Introversive Culture” to Ip Iam Chong’s “Political Matter”
Section 4 “Open Structure”: The Contemporary Interpretation of Daoism Inspired by the Media Movement


第一章 總論

第一節 前言
第二節 基礎與前提
第三節 研究方法
第四節 文本脈絡
第五節 政府的本質就是統治
第六節 法律的正義─懲罰的困窘
第七節 資本家與政府的掛鉤
第八節 全球化發展下民族國家政府的主權喪失
第九節 無政府的可能性

第二章 無政府主義(Anarchism)的歷史溯源

第一節 道家老子《道德經》中的無政府主義元素
第二節 古希臘哲學尾端的餘韻─斯多噶(Stoa)學派的基諾(Zeno of Citium)
第三節 耶穌基督(Jesus Christ)的無政府性

第三章 無政府主義─無政府(Anarchy)概念及理論

第一節 無政府的定義及其概念
第二節 無政府的反證
第三節 人性論的檢討
第四節 俯視觀點的缺陷
第五節 自由作為無政府主義的最終基礎
第六節 無政府主義的經濟面向─
蒲魯東(P. J. Proudhon)對所有權(Property)的論證
第七節 無政府主義的政治社會面向─
克魯泡特金(P. Kropotkin)的自由契約與互助

第四章 全球化與無政府 

第一節 全球化(Globalization)及其意涵
第二節 經濟全球化的本質、影響及其問題
第三節 全球化的哲學反省及其無政府特徵─從貝克(U. Beck)談起

第五章 無政府與現今全球形勢之間的關聯

第一節 人的存有條件中有關無政府的分析
第二節 無政府力量的作用─以嚴重急性呼吸道症候群(SARS)為例證
第三節 全球各國政府的聯合作用
第四節 反全球化運動(Anti-Globalization Movement)與無政府

結論 權力、資本與人本─一種對人類社會的未來憧憬

第一節 作為一個出發點的思考
第二節 去中心與地方化
第三節 資本主義價值觀與人本生活之間



據《新約聖經》(Bible: New Testament)〈馬太福音〉(Gospel According to Matthew)所載,耶穌不但擁有猶太民族(the Jews)祖先亞伯拉罕(Abraham)、大衛(David)的血統,祂的出生、接受聖約翰(John the Baptist)施洗、及至成年並開始傳佈福音,這整個過程實為一連串神話式的人生發展歷程。


據《新約聖經》所述,耶穌的誕生首先被當時統治猶太土地的希律王(Herod the Great)所忌諱。因為有通曉星象的博士為敬拜將要出世的耶穌從遠方而來。希律王從這些博士的口中得知,耶穌會是「猶太人的王」。在政教合一的現實下,這正意味著既有王權將被挑戰的事實。羅馬帝國統治者希律為阻止這個未來的「王」對自身統治的威脅,不惜下令屠殺大衛城伯利恆(Bethlehem)中所有兩歲以下的嬰兒。結果是徒然的:耶穌的誕生是神的旨意,上帝不會使「人子」降生後就結束生命。耶穌的父母約瑟(Joseph)及瑪利亞(Mary)在夢中得到上帝的明示,先一步逃往埃及避難。及後,這位「猶太人的王」在加利利(Galilee)的拿撤勒(Nazareth)成長,成為一生志願帶領猶太人乃至全人類脫離困阨苦難的「基督」、「救世主」。

(摘自: 無政府與全球化. 台北: 國立政治大學. 2003)