A New Approach to Understanding the Contemporary China (5)

We are focusing on examining an emerging social power which represents the rise of anti-globalization movement. This kind of social power is always shifting its shape, density and capacity based on different politico-economic climates and social conditions. Of course, it is possible to measure this power by following the quantitative method mentioned above: to produce lots of statistic figures related to the existing of the social power. However, the figures can only indicate the “status quo” of the power sustaining in a very short time. To produce complex quantitative data is, in our research context, not a right approach to constructing a qualitative understanding on the current ongoing development of the social power for common people’s voices.

Here is an alternative approach to discovering the significance of the practices of the independent media activism as an influential social power developing in Hong Kong and Taiwan.

We will get start with revealing and analyzing the unique characteristics of the practices of the independent media movement in the Chinese societies. Comparing the characteristics of the movement practices with the Western counterparts’ and discovering the hidden connection between the contemporary social movement and the Chinese traditional thought – Daoism are the next two important steps. There is no doubt that Chinese society as a whole has been impacted by the domination of globalized capitalist economy and Western scientific civilization. However, the Chinese is still keeping its unique thinking logic and its clear attitude toward the contemporary changing world in a distinctive historical context. This can be evidenced by the fact that a “dialectical adaptive logic” has been embedded, developed and working in Chinese people’s mind, influencing the development of Chinese society from past to now. The form of this special logic for life is made by the long-term feudalism of the ancient China and the Westerns’ “colonization” with the Communist ruling over the modern China that the Chinese have never had the opportunity to develop their socio-political sense “to live their own life”.

Today, the brain of the West has dominated most of the academic studies on contemporary China, seeing the Chinese as the “follower”, ignoring the existence of the distinctive logic for harmonizing the hard social reality with the “to-be-oneself” idealism of the Chinese people. Therefore, how to open up a new approach to consider this “home-grown” logic is a crucial thing. Through our study on the independent media in Hong Kong and Taiwan, we discover that certain Chinese traditional thoughts can play a role in explaining various social phenomena emerging in the contemporary Chinese society, meanwhile the logic is fully considered.

Finally, a completely new concept – “Open Structure” is to be presented not only for embodying the logic’s existentiality but also for interpreting the close relationship between the Chinese society, the characteristics of the media movement practices and Daoism. Through the new concept, a bold attempt to examine the significant reflection of today’s Chinese on the nature of the globalized civilization by reconnecting the ancient thinking with the contemporary reality will be realized. Also, the concept is anticipated to help open up an advanced construction of an open knowledge structure beyond the existing East-West epistemological perspective, on which the next stage of human civilization for all people can be based.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)


Globalization and the Media Activism (4)

Also, the rise of global capitalism, which has caused the solidification of consumerist thinking of people around the world, violates the original ecology of the natural environment. Today, environmental pollution has become one of the serious issues affecting the sustainability of human civilization. For this, there are noteworthy points to explain why the political powers are unable to control the ongoing destruction of the Nature, including the phenomena of deforestation, desertification, sea-level rising, etc. Besides global capitalists intervening in the politics of environmental protection for their interest, one of the major reasons is the contemporary has constructed an alienated understanding on the role of the Nature in filling the unlimited demand of the human economy conforming to the dominative logic of capitalism. Murray Bookchin unveils why our civilization cannot allow a radical reverse of the destructive development of the Nature, arguing that: “the roots of the present ecological crisis do not lie in technology, overpopulation, or industrial growth alone but rather in the practice of domination and hierarchy.”[1] That is to say, any attempt to environmental protection must firstly renounce the dominative logic embedded in every aspect of human civilization development, otherwise the unsuccessful is to be made. This libertarian ecological theory, not based on praising anthropocentrism but on respecting the subjectivity of the Nature, is of a significance when the “natural disasters” like the Japan’s “311 Earthquake” causing the nuclear disaster in Fukushima in 2011, the 2012 hurricane “Sandy” making a serious flooding in New York, the U.S., etc. have been occurring, signaling the humans’ alienated practice of dominative hierarchy with the capitalist logic against the natural environment is seriously problematic.

The popularization of information technology has offered a very valuable opportunity for all humanistic and libertarian thinking to be developing. This technological development actually fosters a new civilization condition for people to know more about and even take part in social movement practice. At a global level, the enlargement of anti-globalization movement relies on worldwide promotion of a direct-action culture and exercise of transnational information exchange among different peoples as the globalization of social movement practice. As mentioned, global activists use the Internet as an instrument with the features of low-cost, open and no-border to realize their goal. The Independent Media Center (IMC) is one of the notable examples of the practice of anti-globalization movement in the contemporary.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

[1] See: Marshall, Peter (1992). Demanding the Impossible — A History of Anarchism. Great Britain: Fontana. p. 609.

耶穌言行的無政府性 (3)



(摘自: 無政府與全球化. 台北: 國立政治大學. 2003)

耶穌言行的無政府性 (2)

上帝憐憫、體恤萬民苦難,祂要世人知道苦難的原由:世界上每一個人都帶著永遠無法洗脫的原罪。我們無法追究這種罪的成因。人人生來就有罪,這根源於上帝創世之時,亞當與夏娃(Adam and Eve)因偷嚐「禁果」所犯下的。現世人類對這段「真理」陳述無法知道更多,亦無法挽回這個因欲望驅使所犯下的罪業。所以耶穌說:天國近了。在世界末日之時,上帝將審判所有人。凡未抱悔改之心的「罪人」,必下地獄。只有全心信仰基督、相信人子來世的目的是為了洗脫人們的罪,天堂之門是打開的,所有人將獲得永恆的生命。



(摘自: 無政府與全球化. 台北: 國立政治大學. 2003)

No “Label” (5)

Similar to the alienation of the use of currency, the reasoning method of “induction” – to label social phenomena by linking up known theories, thoughts and principles and by categorizing things as a typical approach to “scientific knowledge production” – is to be impotent and needed to be reflected nowadays. Through labeling, we seem to have deeper understanding on the things studied. However, by following this approach we would unconsciously ignore the importance of the nature and characteristics of the things developing within distinctive historical contexts when enjoying the “academic achievement” brought by the doing, being misled by the “power of human knowledge” based on the so-called “absolute effectiveness of the method endorsed by the name of “science”, blurring our original goal for understanding the existing within the Nature on the Earth. Human beings are not the “creator” of the world, but created by the world. However, human knowledge labeled by “science” makes everyone believe in it without reflection. This is a very obstacle of human civilization progression. Therefore, it is certain to say when we get used to put any social phenomena into a fixed understanding system of human knowledge development through labeling things, we lose a significant opportunity to rediscover the only world without the interference from power.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)


第一章 總論

第一節 前言
第二節 基礎與前提
第三節 研究方法
第四節 文本脈絡
第五節 政府的本質就是統治
第六節 法律的正義─懲罰的困窘
第七節 資本家與政府的掛鉤
第八節 全球化發展下民族國家政府的主權喪失
第九節 無政府的可能性

第二章 無政府主義(Anarchism)的歷史溯源

第一節 道家老子《道德經》中的無政府主義元素
第二節 古希臘哲學尾端的餘韻─斯多噶(Stoa)學派的基諾(Zeno of Citium)
第三節 耶穌基督(Jesus Christ)的無政府性

第三章 無政府主義─無政府(Anarchy)概念及理論

第一節 無政府的定義及其概念
第二節 無政府的反證
第三節 人性論的檢討
第四節 俯視觀點的缺陷
第五節 自由作為無政府主義的最終基礎
第六節 無政府主義的經濟面向─
蒲魯東(P. J. Proudhon)對所有權(Property)的論證
第七節 無政府主義的政治社會面向─
克魯泡特金(P. Kropotkin)的自由契約與互助

第四章 全球化與無政府 

第一節 全球化(Globalization)及其意涵
第二節 經濟全球化的本質、影響及其問題
第三節 全球化的哲學反省及其無政府特徵─從貝克(U. Beck)談起

第五章 無政府與現今全球形勢之間的關聯

第一節 人的存有條件中有關無政府的分析
第二節 無政府力量的作用─以嚴重急性呼吸道症候群(SARS)為例證
第三節 全球各國政府的聯合作用
第四節 反全球化運動(Anti-Globalization Movement)與無政府

結論 權力、資本與人本─一種對人類社會的未來憧憬

第一節 作為一個出發點的思考
第二節 去中心與地方化
第三節 資本主義價值觀與人本生活之間



據《新約聖經》(Bible: New Testament)〈馬太福音〉(Gospel According to Matthew)所載,耶穌不但擁有猶太民族(the Jews)祖先亞伯拉罕(Abraham)、大衛(David)的血統,祂的出生、接受聖約翰(John the Baptist)施洗、及至成年並開始傳佈福音,這整個過程實為一連串神話式的人生發展歷程。


據《新約聖經》所述,耶穌的誕生首先被當時統治猶太土地的希律王(Herod the Great)所忌諱。因為有通曉星象的博士為敬拜將要出世的耶穌從遠方而來。希律王從這些博士的口中得知,耶穌會是「猶太人的王」。在政教合一的現實下,這正意味著既有王權將被挑戰的事實。羅馬帝國統治者希律為阻止這個未來的「王」對自身統治的威脅,不惜下令屠殺大衛城伯利恆(Bethlehem)中所有兩歲以下的嬰兒。結果是徒然的:耶穌的誕生是神的旨意,上帝不會使「人子」降生後就結束生命。耶穌的父母約瑟(Joseph)及瑪利亞(Mary)在夢中得到上帝的明示,先一步逃往埃及避難。及後,這位「猶太人的王」在加利利(Galilee)的拿撤勒(Nazareth)成長,成為一生志願帶領猶太人乃至全人類脫離困阨苦難的「基督」、「救世主」。

(摘自: 無政府與全球化. 台北: 國立政治大學. 2003)