Abstract: Anarchy and Globalisation – The Significance of Anarchy in the Development of Global Politics, Economy and Community

Anarchy is an important humanist thought of revealing political power is always making people believe in its absoluteness through history making. Anarchy opposes all forms of domination, because domination is the very root of the alienation of human life contributed by the ruling top, whatever the form of the power, the oligarchic, aristocratic, communistic, democratic, is. Contrary to the political philosophies endorsed by the absolute, anarchy argues the so-called “government” is the only Establishment serving the vested interest blocs on earth. From the ancient to the globalised eras, the essence of the power is never changed: through the “wars” in every aspect of human civilization: the religious, economic, racial, etc., the power can have the “holy” pretext to accumulate its dominative energy by monopolising all kinds of natural and human resources to solidify its absoluteness against the empty “enemy”.

This study contains, first, the discussions on the origins of the anarchist thinking – Laozi’s Taoism, Zeno of Citium’s anarchistic thinking and Jesus Christ’s libertarianism. Secondly, P. Kropotkin and P. J. Proudhon’s socio-economic anarchisms will be analysed and reviewed. The relationship between anarchy and today’s globalised world is to be thirdly examined with U. Beck’s theory on globalisation and the perspective of anti-globalisation movement. In conclusion, we argue an anarchistic nature of human life is already existed, waiting for us to find out our unique answer to the civilisation problems “with our hands”.

Keywords: anarchy, anarchism, globalization

CONTENTS

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摘要:反全球化運動的理論與實踐-以香港及臺灣的獨立媒體運動為例

全球化的主要特徵是「正反並進」,其正面意涵在於瓦解固有政治疆界及促進全球經濟的發展。另一方面,全球化亦成為協助政治權力進一步將多元世界社會同質化的意識型態。有趣的是,作為反對這種文明發展的社會力量:反全球化運動,其並非被排除在全球化以外的邊陲現象,它實是全球化的一部份。反全球化論者認為全球霸權正利用「資本主義」和「民主政治」來模造世界社會秩序,所以他們主張以互助和團結凝聚社會力量,反抗權力及建制對人的生活的操控。

首先,本文針對反全球化的相關理論進行剖析。香港及臺灣獨立媒體社會運動將為本研究探討當今反全球化運動實踐現況的代表案例。透過對「香港獨立媒體網」及「苦勞網」的個案分析,我們發現華人社會運動的實踐模式和理念有其獨特性。臺港獨立媒體運動的發展正反映當代華人社運份子以其獨特的思考邏輯和實踐方法去回應全球化所造成的各種社會問題和挑戰。

關鍵詞:全球化,反全球化運動,獨立媒體,現代華人社會

目錄

摘要:無政府與全球化-論無政府在現今全球政治經濟社會發展的意義

為何在今時今日討論無政府?因為無政府是一種揭露政治權力運用歷史書寫和媒體操控主導人去信任其存在必要性的重要思想。無政府一詞源自希臘文άυάρχη,具反對政權/強權之意。為何反對絕對權力?因為它的存在正是人的生活異化的根源,無論其以封建、共產或民主政府的形式出現。研究無政府思想可協助我們重新認識這種肯定人擁有自主自治的本能而不需依賴權力的政治主張,藉以釐清所謂「政治極端主義」的虛構傳說。有別於各種獲得權力認可的主流政治理論,無政府者指出「政府」就是一種保障少數既得利益者而非維護眾民福祉的具體制度。無論從古代帝王時代乃至今日全球化世界社會的形成,權力的本質始終未變:其透過強權的施展(如經濟制裁,戰爭)掠奪各種資源以延續統治,無視現今人類文明係由每一個人以同理、合作和互助所共同構築的事實。

本文首先探究孕育無政府概念形成的各種思想,包括老子的道家學說,古希臘基諾(Zeno of Citium)的無政府主義及耶穌針對權力批判的解放主張。然後,我們將整理、分析和檢討兩位近代無政府主義代表人物-克魯泡特金(P. Kropotkin)及蒲魯東(P. J. Proudhon)的政治經濟社會理論,作為追溯無政府思想歷史發展軌跡的主要鋪陳。現今全球化現象與無政府的關聯為何?貝克(U. Beck)的「世界社會」概念將會是此一討論的出發點,並帶出世界反全球化社會運動的相關論述,以進一步探討無政府如何隱性地聯繫著人的生活本質。

關鍵詞:無政府,無政府主義,全球化

目錄

Abstract: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement – Case Studies of the Independent Media in Hong Kong and Taiwan

The “positive” and the “negative” emerging at the same time and in the same context is the main characteristic of globalization. The positive aspects of globalization include the breaking down of political border, the rise of new types of connections between world citizens and the development of human solidarity. However, globalization can be an ideology to help political powers to control the tendency of our diversified world. Therefore, it is unsuitable for viewing globalization as a “one-dimensional” phenomenon. Interestingly, anti-globalization movement, as a global movement against the “negative” globalization, is not a happening separated from globalization, but is a part of globalization. Anti-globalizationalists argue that superpowers are directing the development of the globe by making use of “capitalism” and “democracy”. Therefore, the activists start to accumulate their social powers by carrying out direct action to fight against the world Establishment with the spirits of solidarity and mutual aid.

This study is, first, to introduce the humanist thoughts related to the globalization of anti-globalization movement. Secondly, the case studies of the independent media movement in the Chinese societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan as a kind of anti-globalization movement will be presented. In this context, the differences between the Chinese and the Western social movement practices will also be discussed. Through the above works, we discover that there are certain distinctive characteristics of the independent media movements in the Chinese that stimulate us to examine the core problems of today’s human civilization with an alternative thinking approach.

Keywords: globalisation, anti-globalisation movement, independent media, modern Chinese societies

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Abstract: Rethinking Globalisation: Globalism, Ideology and the Aftermath

The rise of globalisation around the millennium suggests all civilisations in the world are gradually being transformed and integrated as parts of the global market apparatus which is directing the developing tendency of human society.

Today, rethinking globalisation is necessary because globalisation has been contributing to the form of a complex living circumstance in which people’s hope for the well-being is neglected: financial crises and terrorism unstoppable; the power dissolving any attempt to reflect on the alienating quality of humanity nowadays. For this, certain scholars have indicated the so-called “positive” aspect of globalisation, such as breaking down the political borders, has been overwhelmed by the “negative” aspect because globalisation is working as an ideology, playing a role in justifying the global operation of superpowers for their vested interest.

By following the above context, this article, first, questions globalisation based on the perspective of anti-globalisation movement. With Ulrich Beck’s globalisation theory, how globalisation to be working as an ideology will be discussed further. A qualitative reflection on the future development of the globalised civilisation will also be presented in the conclusion.

Keywords: globalisation, economic globalisation, ideology, the post-globalisation era

Abstract: The Libertarian Thinking in Tao Te Ching: Another Interpretation

Is it feasible to persuade the authority to renounce its power to establish an ideal society with human peace and happiness? A positive answer had been given by Lao Tzu, who had provided a blueprint for the ideal in the ancient. Taoism, as a Chinese fundamental traditional theory, contains lots of libertarian thinking: “inaction”, for instance, is so compatible with the spirit of the Nature against any complex politics. Politics emphasises interference, management and governance. Therefore, the essence of politics is completely opposed to Tao. Although some believe Tao Te Ching contains certain ideas about leadership skills promotion, most scholars generally recognise that the Lao Tzu’s foster the rise of libertarianism against the absolute power in human civilization.

Through the chapters thirty-two, thirty-seven, seventy-five and eighty of Tao Te Ching, we discover the representative libertarian elements in Taoism. No matter Lao Tzu should be seen as a political adviser or an anarchist, his intention to realise the ideal is clear: Lao Tzu’s libertarian thinking inspires us to reexamine the core logic of human politics developing from the past to the present.

Keywords: Tao; Inaction; The Nature; Libertarian Spirit

Abstract: Take the Money or Not - Rethinking the Issue of Patronage in the Art World

Art refers to a kind of practice for the purposes of creativity, aesthetic idealism and spiritual improvement. On the other hand, work is just a move for basic living needs.

Today, most artists around the world get used to taking the money from the Establishment for their creative activities. In other words, they are “working” for art. This phenomenon reflects the widespread development of culture industry contributed by capitalism, being “normalized” in the contemporary globalization. However, this is a serious issue because art, according to a critical theory perspective, should always play a role in reminding us of the complex reality of human society by refusing to obey the established power. The dilemma is emerged: the artists who have taken the money are not working for art, but working for the green.

How do we escape from this “traditional” dilemma in the art world? A desirable approach is: trying to insist on the pureness of art by not “taking the money from the Establishment”. Labour is the fundamental ingredient of an artistic life that cannot be superseded by any top-down patronage mechanisms.

Keywords: the Establishment, culture industry, the pureness of a creative act, the subjectivity of art