Abstract: Anarchy and Globalisation – The Significance of Anarchy in the Development of Global Politics, Economy and Community

Anarchy is an important humanistic theory of revealing the fact that political power is always making people believe in the absoluteness of its existence through history making and media manipulation. Anarchy opposes all forms of domination, because domination is the very root of the alienation of human life contributed by the ruling, whatever the form of political power – the oligarchic, aristocratic, communistic, democratic – is.  Different from general political philosophies endorsed by the power, anarchy argues that the so-called “government” is a plastic Establishment serving the demand of vested interest blocs. From the ancient to the globalised eras, the essence of political power is never changed: through “war” in every aspect of human civilization: the religious, economic, racial, etc., the power accumulates its dominative energy by monopolising natural and human resources to consolidate the absoluteness of its top-down mastery mechanism.

This research contains, first, the discussions of the “origins” of anarchist thought – Laozi’s Taoism, Zeno of Citium’s anarchistic thinking and Jesus Christ’s libertarianism. Secondly, P. Kropotkin and P. J. Proudhon’s socio-economic anarchisms will be analysed and reviewed. The relationship between anarchy and today’s globalised world is to be thirdly examined and justified with U. Beck’s globalisation theory and the perspective of anti-globalisation movement. In conclusion, it is justifiable to say that an anarchistic nature of human life is present if people start to work out their own answer to the issues of today’s civilisation “with their hands”.

Keywords: anarchy, anarchism, globalization

反全球化運動的理論與實踐:以香港及臺灣的獨立媒體運動為例

全球化的主要特徵是「正反並進」,其正面意涵在於瓦解固有政治疆界及促進全球經濟的發展。另一方面,全球化亦成為協助政治權力進一步將多元世界社會同質化的意識型態。有趣的是,作為反對這種文明發展的社會力量:反全球化運動,其並非被排除在全球化以外的邊陲現象,它實是全球化的一部份。反全球化論者認為全球霸權正利用「資本主義」和「民主政治」來模造世界社會秩序,所以他們主張以互助和團結凝聚社會力量,反抗權力及建制對人的生活的操控。

首先,本文針對反全球化的相關理論進行剖析。香港及臺灣獨立媒體社會運動將為本研究探討當今反全球化運動實踐現況的代表案例。透過對「香港獨立媒體網」及「苦勞網」的個案分析,我們發現華人社會運動的實踐模式和理念有其獨特性。臺港獨立媒體運動的發展正反映當代華人社運份子以其獨特的思考邏輯和實踐方法去回應全球化所造成的各種社會問題和挑戰。

關鍵詞:全球化,反全球化運動,獨立媒體,現代華人社會

摘要:無政府與全球化-論無政府在現今全球政治經濟社會發展的意義

為何在今時今日討論無政府?因為無政府是一種揭露政治權力運用歷史書寫和媒體操控主導人去信任其存在必要性的重要思想。無政府一詞源自希臘文άυάρχη,具反對政權/強權之意。為何反對絕對權力?因為它的存在正是人的生活異化的根源,無論其以封建、共產或民主政府的形式出現。研究無政府思想可協助我們重新認識這種肯定人擁有自主自治的本能而不需依賴權力的政治主張,藉以釐清所謂「政治極端主義」的虛構傳說。有別於各種獲得權力認可的主流政治理論,無政府者指出「政府」就是一種保障少數既得利益者而非維護眾民福祉的具體制度。無論從古代帝王時代乃至今日全球化世界社會的形成,權力的本質始終未變:其透過強權的施展(如經濟制裁,戰爭)掠奪各種資源以延續統治,無視現今人類文明係由每一個人以同理、合作和互助所共同構築的事實。

本文首先探究孕育無政府概念形成的各種思想,包括老子的道家學說,古希臘基諾(Zeno of Citium)的無政府主義及耶穌針對權力批判的解放主張。然後,我們將整理、分析和檢討兩位近代無政府主義代表人物-克魯泡特金(P. Kropotkin)及蒲魯東(P. J. Proudhon)的政治經濟社會理論,作為追溯無政府思想歷史發展軌跡的主要鋪陳。現今全球化現象與無政府的關聯為何?貝克(U. Beck)的「世界社會」概念將會是此一討論的出發點,並帶出世界反全球化社會運動的相關論述,以進一步探討無政府如何隱性地聯繫著人的生活本質。

關鍵詞:無政府,無政府主義,全球化

Abstract: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement – Case Studies of the Independent Media in Hong Kong and Taiwan

The main characteristic of globalization is the “positive” and the “negative” appearing at the same time, and in the same context. The positive effects of globalization are to break down political border, to create possibilities of new types of connections and to open up the further development of human civilization. Meanwhile, globalization can be an ideology to help political powers to establish an artificial closed “system” to dominate our diversified world. Therefore, we cannot use a single point of view to analyze and confront the problems of globalization. Interestingly, anti-globalization movement, as a social movement opposing the negative effects of globalization, is not a phenomenon separated from globalization, but a part of globalization. Anti-globalizationalists argue that world superpowers are using “capitalism” and “democracy” as the means to direct the development of global community. Therefore, they start to practice social movements with the spirits of solidarity and mutual aid to accumulate social powers to fight against the domination of the Establishment and try to change the present situation of modern world.

This study is to, first, introduce the theories as the spiritual foundations breeding the globalization of anti-globalization movement. After that, the case studies of the independent media in the Chinese societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan as the practices of anti-globalization movement will be presented. The differences of social movement practices between the East and the West will also be analyzed in this context. Through the above researches, we can discover that there are some specific characteristics of the practices of the Chinese independent media movements that would stimulate us to meditate on the core problems of today’s human civilization with an alternative thinking approach.

Keywords: globalisation, anti-globalisation movement, independent media, modern Chinese societies

Abstract: Rethinking Globalisation: Ideology, Beck’s Globalism, and the Aftermath

The rise of globalisation around the millennium suggests that all civilisations in the world are being transformed and integrated as parts of the global market, affecting the potential developing tendency of human society.

Today, rethinking globalisation is necessary because the fundamental effects of the phenomenon have been creating a contemporary complex living domain against people’s anticipation for well-being: financial crises and terrorism waving; the evolution of power dissolving any attempt to reflect the alienating quality of humanity. For such situation, some intellectuals indicate the so-called “positive” aspect of globalisation, such as breaking down political borders, has been overwhelmed by its negative counterpart: globalisation plays a role as ideology to justify the transnational operation of global powers for private interests.

By following the above thinking context, this article, first, questions globalisation based on anti-globalisation theory. Secondly, how the concept to become an ideology will be further discussed. A qualitative reflection on the upcoming development of the globalised civilisation will also be presented as conclusion.

Keywords: globalisation, economic globalisation, ideology, post-globalisation era

Abstract: The Libertarian Elements of Thinking in Tao Te Ching: Another Interpretation

Is it feasible to persuade the upper to renounce its authority for an ideal society with human peace and happiness? This paradoxical had been done by Lao Tzu, who had provided a blueprint for the idealism, in ancient China. Taoism, as a fundamental theory, contains lots of libertarian thinkings: the concept of “inaction”, for instance, is so compatible with the spirit of the Nature against the political consciousness of human beings. Politics emphasises the necessity of interference, management and governance. The nature of politics is completely opposed to Tao. Although some believe Tao Te Ching contains ideas about leadership or governing skills promotion, scholars generally recognise that Lao Tzu’s theories foster the rise of libertarianism in human history against the governmental departing from the needs of humanity.

Through interpreting the chapters thirty-two, thirty-seven, seventy-five and eighty of Tao Te Ching, we are able to discover the representative elements of libertarianism in Taoist thought. No matter Lao Tzu should be seen as a political adviser or an anarchist, his intention of realising the well-being is clear: the libertarian elements are inspiring people to re-examine the essence of politics in the human realm from the ancient to the modern.

Keywords: Tao; Inaction; The Nature; Libertarian Spirit

Abstract: Take the Money or Not - Revisiting the Sponsorship Issue in Artistic Practice by a Critical Theory Perspective

Generally speaking, art means an individual who practises a creative act for aesthetic idealism and spiritual improvement. On the other hand, work is a practical move for living needs.

Nowadays, most artistic workers are “working for art”: they get used to getting money from the Establishment for sustaining their activities. This phenomenon reflects the development of “culture industry”, being seen as “common” in modernity. However, it could be problematic because art has the characters of subverting dominant power and of reminding us of the complex reality of society, according to a critical theory perspective. A dilemma is shown: the artistics is not working for art, but working for “living”, the green.

How do we escape from the dilemma under the impact of the Establishment on the art world? A desirable approach could be: trying to insist on realising the pureness of artistic activity by stopping “taking ‘the money’ for art”. Labour is a fundamental element of an artistic life that cannot be superseded by any investment from the top.

Keywords: the Establishment, culture industry, the pureness of creative act, the subjectivity of art