無政府性釋義 (5)

(2) 反政府-反抗權力宰制的具體立場

無政府性反映一種反政府的具體立場、思維和行動。「政府」的存在代表著絕對權力的在場,作為主宰人的政治生活的建制機構。起初,反政府所針對的並不是某個特定統治機關的存在事實,其實係針對宰制本身:反政府反對任何權力對人的宰制、反對所有在上位者為了延續其統治和利益所施行的各種不合公義和倫理的作為,並批判其無視民眾百姓的霸權態度。

反政府的實踐可以是以群眾集會、抗議、示威遊行、甚至政治革命的形式出現。另一方面,反政府亦可以其他方式進行,例如文學、音樂等藝術創作來反映其精神本質。反政府從反對政府的施政出發,以至反對政府的建制架構及其存有的理論基礎,進而發展成為一種無政府的具體主張或思想。無政府性藉此體現。

(摘自: 無政府與全球化. 台北: 國立政治大學. 2003)

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The Qualitative Influence of the Independent Media (6)

Internet independent media, however, have certain degree of limitation on influencing the globalizing circumstance, which depends on: (1) how much political pressure would be put on people’s daily life; (2) how the changing tendency of social atmosphere is going to be; and (3) what the distinctive nationalities or values held by the majorities are. For example, the “IMC” played an important role in catalyzing the “Anti-WTO Movement” in Seattle in 1999. During the movement, the U.S. government, the host of the WTO conference in the year, adopted a typical public security strategy (e.g. to deploy “sufficient” police forces at the locale of the conference, etc.) to suppress the activism on the street. However, the public, including the local and the global ones, is willing to respect and support the dissenting voices delivered by the independent media: the monstrous organization having the absolute power to make the rules to control the development of world economy must be criticized and reviewed immediately. At least, the “IMC” has room to clearly express its anti-Establishment stance by exercising the right of free speech to carrying out such kind of social movement that was recognized as a significant rise of global media activism.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

The Qualitative Influence of the Independent Media (5)

Thirdly, “Inmediahk.net” and “Coolloud.org” both realize that their media social movements are being carried out in the context of globalization. For the two media, the primary aim of the practices is to enlarge their influence on the current development of civil society in a globalization era. Basically speaking, the Internet can have a role in this concern. And, the running of the internet-based independent media can help consolidate people’s consciousness on public issues and create a solidarity spirit for global citizens. Thanks to the Internet’s real-time operating character, the door for a world social movement is open. For this, the American “IMC” is a good example: the foundation of the media for anti-globalization gave rise to the blooming of the internet-based independent media movement around the globe. In East Asia, “Inmediahk.net” and “Coolloud.org” have a close cooperative relationship with each other for social movement practice. At the observing point of the global development of independent media, we can discover an interesting phenomenon: neo-liberal/laissez-faire/capitalist economy nowadays has been globally developing on the one hand, and the rise of social movement is also globalizing on the other. The practice of the people’s collective movement is no longer restricted within a single region or country, but is carried out through a process of trans-regionalization of social action on the earth – not only can locals get the fresh news about the development of foreign social movements, but can give out their support through internet independent media also. By realizing the trans-regional communication, the foreign/local differentiation of socio-political and economic issues is gradually diminished that all people are able to understand the fact of homogeneity of their living circumstance and to have enough knowledge to think more about how to tackle the common issues collectively. On the scene of globalization, when such communicative interaction between different people develops, the power of the world social movement is to be further strengthened, having the weight to overturn the present politico-economic domination on all humans contributed by world superpowers.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

The Qualitative Influence of the Independent Media (4)

Internet media, as having the character of realizing the rapidity of information propagation, are facilitating a positive development of interaction between social campaign groups and common people, fostering the establishment of a public opinion towards social issues reflection. By using the media, people can share their ideas about reforming the current society and receive direct feedback from others. This approach to deliberations for social development is more flexible than the traditional one: to participate in social movements organized by activists and campaign groups. In addition, the popularization of the use of the Internet actually realizes a no-border communication between different peoples around the globe, actualizing the global transnational connection between social movement organizers and supporters and helping the form of a world social power for world citizens. Therefore, it is noteworthy that to set up and operate an independent media on the Internet becomes one of the workable approaches to social movement practice nowadays.[1]

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

[1] “…perhaps the most dramatic change in social movement organizing in the last few decades has been the impact of the Internet and, more generally, of electronic communication. …Technologies that operate over the Internet offer so many different kinds of support to social movements that it may be reductive to regard them as simply vehicles for ‘message transmission.’ When combined with their implications, digital media have become a partial substitute for traditional forms of social movement organization as well.” See: Tarrow, Sidney G. (2011). Power in Movement: Social Movements and Contentious Politics. New York: Cambridge University. p. 137. “Political action is made easier, faster and more universal by the developing technologies. ICTs (information and communication technologies) lower the costs and obstacles of organizing collective action significantly.” See: Donk, Wim Van De; Loader, Brian D.; Nixon, Paul G.; Rucht, Dieter (2004). Cyberprotest: New Media, Citizens, and Social Movements. New York: Routledge. p. 97. “The Net, we are told, is bringing into being a cottage industry of small independent producers who are sweeping away ‘the monolithic empires of mass media’ (Negroponte, 1996:57). It is generating a new culture that is critical, selective, and participatory. People can pull from the Web and digital media what they want, rather than settling for what is pushed at them (Negroponte, 1996:84). More generally, the Net is engendering an egalitarian, emancipated, and interconnected world – ‘cyberspace’ – that is reconfiguring the offline world in which we live, and making it a better place (Poster, 1997). …It seems worth investigating, therefore, whether the Net makes it easier than before to publish alternative opinions, and also whether Internet technology makes possible new ways of doing journalism.” See: Couldry, Nick; Curran, James (2003). Contesting Media Power: Alternative Media in a Networked World. Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 227-228.

無政府性釋義 (4)

當人受到外在環境的刺激而進入某種特定的精神狀態,創造的本能亦可被激發。例如,創造可以從接觸前人的創造或得知某突發事件的發生而來,這些誘發元素使人產生一種希望將思緒和情感表達出來的原欲。這個創造意念的形構過程往往是創造的一部份。創造的結果通常被稱為「作品」。不僅如此,創造應包含創新的事實。如果只是複製前人的概念,只換上不同的名堂加以充數,此乃係抄襲,其具體行為不能被視為創造。

一種具社會性的創造企圖,其實踐過程必然獲得眾人的迴響、尊重及承認。歷史中,我們發現不少人從己身的政治立場、思想和理念出發從事創造實踐。不過,他們未必得到他人的認同和支持。當然,我們不能以無人認同或少數人認可等判斷作為基礎試圖否定其創造的價值及社會意義。若跳脫「純抽象」的角度去追問創造作為探尋全人類福祉和理想生活的原始動機,對他者的關懷則必須被包含在創造的實踐中。只有真誠地將個體與群體連接起來,創造的完整化才能實現。

(摘自: 無政府與全球化. 台北: 國立政治大學. 2003)

The Qualitative Influence of the Independent Media (3)

Secondly, “Inmediahk.net” and “Coolloud.org” recognize that independent media is playing a fundamental social role in facilitating any grassroots movements and socio-political campaigns developing in civil society. For individual activists, there are several practical approaches to social action practice. For example, they can organize an advocated association or a public campaign group for particular socio-political claim. Also, they can regularly arrange different kinds of social actions, such as street protests, demonstration activities and forum gatherings for public concern development, pressuring the authorities to improve its governance. Although these traditional approaches to social movement practice are generally seen to be useful in pushing socio-political reform, they may have certain pitfalls. For instance, the approaches should be set to be able to accumulate social power to change the current problematic situation of society for people. However, in practice they do not offer enough space for social movement participators to develop their individual thinking, to express their voices for tackling practical issues of social movement running, to reflect upon the nature of their practice as well as to communicate with the activistic groups they support. Under the “flag”, people have just one choice: to participate in (or not). It is difficult to discover other unknown possibilities for the growth of social movement practice.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

The Qualitative Influence of the Independent Media (2)

For example, should an independent media report the “bad” news of the business that is financially supporting the media’s operation? If it decides not to make the news against its sponsor, is it meaning that the media’s original aim for free speech has been tacitly shifted by the dependency of the media? Here is another example: an independent media obtains a funding from a governmental department for its running. Needless to say, the funding can help the media develop its journalistic works within a specific period of time. However, there is still a problem: the funded needs to seek other similar resource for sustaining its operation when the financial support is expired. From this case, we are unable to have sufficient evidence to justify that through this “compromised” approach independent media can effectively expand its progressive influence on the long-term development of social movement practice in the near future.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

The Qualitative Influence of the Independent Media

THROUGH THE ANALYSES of the activism of “Inmediahk.net” and “Coolloud.org”, we understand that the two independent media both have their insistence on their distinctive methodologies of practicing social movement. There are totally three main resemblances between the two independent media’s activism: (1) the media are financially supported by common people, not by the Establishment; (2) the media view their practice as a kind of social movement; (3) their media movements are developing in the context of globalization.

First, the two independent media both have a clear stance on the issue of financial independence: they reject their activism to be “bought up” by the Establishment. This characteristic reflects a basic attitude of the media toward social movement practice. Here, the meaning of being “independent” is definite that it should be embodied in the situation that the operation of independent media is not depended on any institutions or corporations’ financial support. In other words, media activism should not rely on the Establishment, especially the governmental authorities. This shows the two independent media’s anti-Establishment stance, reflecting that the media have a true consciousness of securing the subjectivity of social movement practice. It is illogical if the “independent media” are running under any dominative power they oppose.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

The Difficulties and Challenges (5)

All in all, the two independent media’s social movement practices can be seen as a significant part of anti-globalization movement because they are closely working with many activists who are opposing the negative effects of globalization, especially the economic one. However, it should be noted that the independent media movements in the East Asia are carried out not only for approaching to the end of anti-globalization activism, but for helping establish an ideal society in which all forms of domination, including the economic, political, cultural and social, would be significantly diminished that people’s voices for a better united society, through the independent media, can be heard around the globe. The social activists’ actions on the internet and on the street are becoming a concrete social power to facilitate the progressive development of modernity and civilization in a global context. Before accomplishing the goal of the social movement, it should be remembered that all historical flags, doctrines and ideologies are insignificant when people recognize that they all have the responsibility to work the further development of civilization out with their own hands. The media activism of “Coolloud.org” and “Inmediahk.net” is a good example of telling this fundamental reason.

 

Coolloud.org

The place of the base Taiwan
The year of foundation 1997
The core members of the media Sun Chiung-Li (Sun Qiongli孫窮理) and the correspondent group
The financial resource Civil donation
The representative participations in social movement “Anti-Sweatshop Movement” in 2001;

“Anti-WTO Movement” in 2005;

“Cheval-de-frise Film Festival”

Table 4: The Profile of “Coolloud.org”

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

無政府性釋義 (3)

創造可以被下列幾項條件滿足:一,創造必須依據人己身堅定不移之信念藉以實踐;二,創造容納不同思想產物或物質元素的集成、整理和再生;三,創造的成果需具獨立新穎的特性,並能取得他人的同理和共感。

因人具備創造的本能,能運用並開發其精神及意志─其來自個體生活經驗歷史所累積習得的信念形構,確信不疑地將原本並不「存在」的事或物,以一己之力以不同的行為形式表現在外。換句話說,創造本能的呈現就是所謂的「藝術」,包括音樂、文學、戲劇、繪畫、雕塑、建築等都是例子。當然,創造本能乃是一種潛能。雖然每一個人都具備,但並非每一個人都有意願加以運用。這是一個根本問題的陳述:在於人「做不做」,它與人「有沒有能力去做」無關。

(摘自: 無政府與全球化. 台北: 國立政治大學. 2003)