The Objection to “Principle”

Although many challenges are there, the Coollouders still demonstrate their enthusiastic devotion to the independent media movement. It is reasonable to consider that the media runners, in their mind, should have a common belief or value as a fundamental spiritual support for their long-term media movement practice:

“About the core belief or value that supports our practice I cannot define it explicitly…. Surely, the spiritual thing for ‘Coolloud.org’ contains certain humanitarian concerns that give us energy to develop our social movement. However, it is hard to tell at the moment because new social movement, such as independent media activism, is running on its distinctive road that may not have any thinking or position parallel with the traditional Left’s ideology for social movement practice in today’s space-time condition of contemporary society. So we have not got any ‘political line’ or ‘flag’ for our independent media movement.” [1]

Sun agrees that there are “certain humanitarian concerns” contained by a public-spirited value that is supporting the sustainable development of the media social movement. However, it is “hard to tell” because “Coolloud.org” is running as an independent media experiment with some specific characteristics interacting with the complexity of today’s social reality, distant from the traditional line of practice of the Leftist politics, like Marxism’s.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

[1] Ibid.

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The Differences between “Inmediahk.net” and “Coolloud.org” (5)

Because of the correspondent group setting, “Coolloud.org” has a very responsibility to maintain the so-called “quality” of its reporting. Such model of operation is different from that of other independent media relying on citizen reporters’ contribution as a main source of information. “Inmediahk.net” is a representative example: the media respects people’s right of free speech by not interfering in “adjusting” the content posted by any citizen reporters on the website as far as possible. Under this circumstance, the independent media has less responsibility to take care of the quality of the information delivered by it. However, “Coolloud.org” is on another road of practicing its media social movement: although “Coolloud.org” is an independent media, it tends to be operating as a professional media organization. Sun does not mention the details of what journalistic skills the Coollouders should have, his suggests that being a “good” correspondent of the independent media is quite similar to a professional journalist working for general media. In fact, some young Coollouders could have no experience in acting as correspondent. Before participating in the media project, these people could be the individuals having enthusiasm for social movement running, but are amateurs of being a media worker. Moreover, the “no-pay” state also distracts them from completing various media works and strengthening journalistic skills. To sum up, it can be seen that “Coolloud.org” is striving for a further development of its media social movement in Taiwan, even though there are difficulties needed to be tackled in the future.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

休戚相關與理性 (3)

“If human beings followed their natural instincts and were guided by reason, they would be able to live in peace and harmony without the need for coercive institutions. In Zeno’s Republic, according to the fragments preserved for us by Diogenes Laertius, there are no lawcourts, police, armies, temples, schools, money or even marriage. People live as a single ‘herd’ without family and property, with no distinctions of race or rank and without the need for money or counts of law…People fulfill their natures living in a stateless society of complete equality and freedom which spreads across the whole globe.”[1]

基諾在鋪陳其以理性概念為基礎的無政府哲學時,亦對所謂理想社會的內涵加以描述。在理論闡述邏輯角度分析,基諾的思想與老子同樣具有理想主義色彩。不過,老子在形容「合乎道的社會」時,並無否定在上位者的角色和作用。事實上,老子期望統治者能夠協助實現其建基於道的人本政治理念。我們無法把老子視為無政府者,但我們有理據肯定基諾為奠定無政府哲學思想的理論基礎的貢獻,功不可沒。

(摘自: 無政府與全球化. 台北: 國立政治大學. 2003)

[1] See Marshall, Peter (1992). Demanding the Impossible—A History of Anarchism. pp. 70-71.

The Differences between “Inmediahk.net” and “Coolloud.org” (4)

However, such kind of approach to the media movement practice has its difficulties. The “no-pay” working state encountered by the Coollouders is one of them. Maintaining the quality of the website contents and strengthening the journalistic discipline of the correspondents are other main issues which matter the further development of the practice:

“To keep running an independent media is not an easy task because our journalistic works are mixed that need to be completed by the ones who are enthusiastic about social movement practice and have long-term working experience in the media world. Now I think our members are still young that they always come to join us and decide to leave in haste. It is hard to train them up under this circumstance. For newcomers, it is quite difficult to entirely fulfill our requirements of completing the media works, in some cases, as professional as a general media reporter. Professional correspondents may not have interest in understanding the whole context of the development of various social movements; however, they do have an ability to compose professional reports for the happenings. It is burdensome for our correspondents to do the same thing without making any mistake. Besides, they also need to integrate our opinion and thinking in our news reports. A kind of anxiety about how to complete the media works well arises in their mind.” [1]

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

[1] Ibid.

休戚相關與理性 (2)

基諾以何種基礎談論利他實踐或人與人之間跨越血緣關係的共同合作?基諾首先肯定人有休戚相關的同理本能(Sympathy),並藉此架構其解放主義倫理思想。若進一步追問,人的休戚相關是怎樣產生的?其理論依據為何?基諾指出,世界上每一個人─不管生活在什麼地方、從事什麼職業等─都擁有一種共同共有的本性,那就是理性。換句話說,這種理性確保了休戚相關的實踐。由此可見,基諾的倫理學架構顯然是形上學式的。

因為人都有理性,那麼人就不應有所謂階級之分,亦沒有必要為了任何人倫中的親疏比較作特定的劃分。每一個人都是對等、平等的。據此,人與人之間的溝通和尊重也具備充足的條件達成。在此客觀條件下,即使不具血緣關係,人的休戚相關每每存在,且不斷發生。每一個人都依據理性的指引生活,不以血緣或人種概念定義彼此的親疏關係,不據利益的多寡來區分你我得著。個人的福祉就是他人的福祉。生命個體之間的連結密切而友好。一個和諧大同的世界隨之而成,且毋須權力在場。

(摘自: 無政府與全球化. 台北: 國立政治大學. 2003)

The Differences between “Inmediahk.net” and “Coolloud.org” (3)

Because of the “strong consciousness of working as a media”, “Coolloud.org” tries to give a complete and even-handed concern with social groups, NGOs and individual activists’ actions for labour right and social justice development. Coollouders can play a role as the supporter of various social movements. However, they refuse to become the subject of those activistic practices. The main purpose of sticking with the role of being a media is to promote a distinctive perspective on viewing all social happenings as equal as possible. From this point, we can see that “Coolloud.org” has a clear stance on keeping an objective journalistic horizon and avoiding any possible impact on the horizon from a single happening for its media movement. For this, to arrange and organize an independent correspondent group is necessary.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

The Differences between “Inmediahk.net” and “Coolloud.org” (2)

Undoubtedly, it could be argued that in “Anti-Pulling Down the Star Ferry Pier & Queen’s Pier Movement” “Inmediahk.net” did not run as “a media” because of its complete participation in the movement development. “Inmediahk.net”, by following Sun’s thinking, could lose its objective position of giving out a neutral point of view to the audience not only through revealing the authorities’ wrongdoing one-sidedly but through providing a whole picture of the movement, like explaining the socio-political context of the form of the happening, creating a space for people to reflect the disappearing connection with their “histories”, etc. Furthermore, social and political conflicts are usually occurring at the same time. It is possible that some of them could be unintentionally missed and even ignored if independent media only focus on reporting or participating in “the most important one”. This reflective point directs us to think more about the differences between Hong Kong and Taiwan’s media social movements.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

The Differences between “Inmediahk.net” and “Coolloud.org”

“We have a strong consciousness of operating as ‘a media organization’, so we are working just like a general media. This characteristic of the operation of ‘Coolloud.org’ is dissimilar to that of ‘Inmediahk.net’, even though we are both ‘independent media’. For example, if there is a social conflict happening somewhere, the core members of ‘Inmediahk.net’ would immediately go out and demonstrate their supporting stance publicly. ‘Anti-Pulling Down the Star Ferry Pier & Queen’s Pier Movement’ was a representative one. At the peak of the social movement running, ‘Inmediahk.net’ was not operating as ‘media’ because all the members were participating in the collective action and no one stayed in the office…they became a part of the growing resistance power, a 100% social movement group. [1]

Sun argues there are different characteristics of the operation of the two independent media for embodying their social movement support. In Section Two of this chapter, we have analyzed the working strategy of the Coollouders: the independent media members would not participate in any actions by using the media’s name. On the social movement stage, they are not only giving solidarity and support to demonstrators, but completing their media works at the same time. Here, Sun takes “Anti-Pulling Down the Star Ferry Pier & Queen’s Pier Movement” as an example to argue that “Inmediahk.net”, in some cases, does not work as “a media”. In the resisting movement, “Inmediahk.net” played a role not as an independent media, but as a social movement actor because the media’s operators were actually the “subject” of the movement, manifesting their clear position of getting involved in the social incident and trying to lead the developing direction of the resisting movement, even if they also did some media works as the subordinate, such as recording their action in the movement and uploading relative information onto the independent media website.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

[1] Ibid.

Connected with Social Movement Organizations (4)

Through the active model of the media movement practice, “Coolloud.org” can effectively exercise its editorial capability and emphasize the media’s reporting orientation, easier for the media to establish a concrete stance on supporting and cultivating the particular kinds of social movement runnings. This working model is unable to be operated by “Inmediahk.net” because most information provided by the Hong Kong independent media is sourced from voluntary citizen reporters. It is not necessary for the media members to work closely with local social organizations for news production, reflecting a passive model of the media movement practice. To sum up, from the case of “Coolloud.org” we can understand that an independent media can be actively acting as information exchange centre of social organizations and individuals that can properly facilitate the establishment of a solid connection between common people and grassroots activists as well as various social associations, fostering the further development of the independent media movement on the scene of globalization.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

Connected with Social Movement Organizations (3)

In addition, Sun comments that other independent media might not be working as “Coolloud.org” do, naming “Inmediahk.net” as an example. This argument is most likely built on his evaluation on the current achievement of the independent media in Hong Kong: the news and information shown on the “Inmediahk.net” website are mainly related to political, social and cultural issues offered by local citizen reporters, different from that of “Coolloud.org”, focusing on delivering the news of labour and environmental movements powered by the media’s correspondent group[1].

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

[1] On the front page of the website of “Inmediahk.net”, there are many tags to be set for news classification. The tags include Locals; Social Movements; Actions; Government & Councils; Freedom of Speech; Internet Freedom; Media; China; International; Culture & Art; Animations and Comics; Diet; Travel; Labors; Education; Environment; Animal rights; Sports; Gender; Economy; Technology. On the other side, “Coolloud.org” categorizes the news on the website by using the tags of Reports of Coolloud; Comments of Coolloud; Public Forum (Retrieved 7 January, 2013, from the “Inmediahk.net” and “Coolloud.org” websites). The different tag categories set by the two independent media not only represent different characters of the media movement practices: “Inmediahk.net” for the voices of people; “Coolloud.org” for social movement reporting, but reflect whether there is a close relationship between the media and social movement groups. Due to the specific character of the media running, “Coolloud.org” has to maintain a good relationship with social organizations and individual activists for the purposes of following the fresh development of social movements in the local and of keeping the news sources of the independent media well.