“Open Structure”: The Contemporary Interpretation of Daoism Inspired by the Media Movement (32)

Further, the term “Structure” means that an intercommunicative and intertwined connection between human beings – the cognitive subject and the “others” is to be constructed with the condition of having in an open perspective for the “truth”. The aim of bringing up the new theory is not to establish a closed knowledge system like Western scientism does. We know that most scholars, theorists and thinkers get used to construct logical deductive argumentation and create new concept(s) to explain their theories for analyzing, researching and concluding various phenomena on the earth. Here, we are not doing the same thing like that: “Open Structure” is not a theoretical attempt to produce any content of knowledge or to solidify the knowledge apparatus that cannot be challenged or criticized. On the contrary, the promotion of “Open Structure” aims at reemphasizing the original relationship between all beings being understood, encouraging the essential development of human concern on the “truth” by minimizing any intervention from all forms of power.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

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“Open Structure”: The Contemporary Interpretation of Daoism Inspired by the Media Movement (31)

“Open Structure” is of an experiment for interpreting a Daoist spirit in the contemporary knowledge world, offering an alternative vision of understanding the possible connotation of the whole human knowledge that the nature of the theory is dissimilar to that of the intellectual hegemonies empowered by Western scientism. Here, the term “Open” means not using the logic of exclusion to construct our understanding on the natural world. For example, we could have doubt or prejudice against new phenomena, intending to define them as “false” or “untrue” or “inexistent” with “scientific” methodologies endorsed by power. This is what the logic of exclusion exactly is. “Open Structure” covers all existent and potential knowledge, trying to do nothing with the correctness of them for creating space for us to touch the “genesis”, to experience the life reality without any kind of “standardized reason” in order to realize an inclusive knowledge potentiality. To put it simply, it is to let us know what the “thing” is by following the Nature’s eye. From the point of view of Daoism, all beings are equally understood as the components of the Nature, even if any distinctive characteristics are attached on them. Inspired by the Daoist logic, the theory of “Open Structure” is to build up a philosophical approach to including all existing and potential knowledge to a greatest extent. As we have analyzed, “Dao” cannot be standardized by human knowledge because “Dao” cannot be exhausted by words, by language which is commonly used as a discretionary instrument to understand the abundant surrounding. Some must be lost when the meaning delivering car is moving. On the other hand, no being exists outside the realm of “Dao” because “Dao” itself does not exclude anything: “Dao” includes the whole creation, playing a role as the “principle” of the changing of the universe. In fact, the practice of exclusion for knowledge making is a human behaviour for establishing a fixed “ultimate worldview” for shifting all beings’ original destiny from following the Nature to serving the expansion of power.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

“Open Structure”: The Contemporary Interpretation of Daoism Inspired by the Media Movement (30)

Here, we would like to present a new theory called “Open Structure (開放結構)” for establishing an alternative thinking approach to interpreting the right epistemological relationship between all existing beings equally and openly. To follow the theory’s logic, we should take this first step for knowledge making: to view all human understanding as the numerous pieces of a “jigsaw”, as the ingredients of the existentiality of the whole creation produced by human beings’ thinking on the entire universe. Under this reasoning umbrella, an intersubjective and interinclusive relationship between all “knowledge pieces” can be ensured and maintained. The most important point is: we should not intentionally or unintentionally exclude any potential “unknown” existences or phenomena from our epistemological horizon and should not build up any realms of “knowledge” for any purpose in the “Open Structure”. Because of this open-minded attitude toward all existences, power would not have a place to live and its dominative influence on the ongoing development of human intellectual consciousness would be effectively reduced and, at the end, eliminated. This is an elementary deliberation of the theory of “Open Structure”.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

“Open Structure”: The Contemporary Interpretation of Daoism Inspired by the Media Movement (29)

Moreover, the Daoist characteristics of the Chinese media activisms remind us to go back to the realm of Chinese intellectual tradition for finding out valuable to help tackle various civilized issues of modern China when we have realized the fact that the form of the issues is related to the heavy impact of today’s Western alienated civilization. Daoism is a “trans-era” philosophical thought that its metaphysical character gives a large room for us to open up a new thinking horizon for viewing the “others” in an equalitarian sense, for improving the epistemological apparatus built up by modern thinkers. Here, we intend to consider this inspiration brought by one of the “Three Teachings” as a re-enlightening possibility of Chinese intellectual culture in the age of globalization. By revealing the dilemma of the Western ideological civilization connected with human egoism and desire in the above paragraphs, the door for a modern interpretation of the Chinese traditional thought is completely opened.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

“Open Structure”: The Contemporary Interpretation of Daoism Inspired by the Media Movement (28)

By researching on the independent media activisms of “Inmediahk.net” and “Coolloud.org” in Hong Kong and Taiwan, we discover that the media activists’ ideas, social opinions and acting standpoints on social movement practice have certain Daoist characteristics. If we follow the social science methodology to develop our research, a philosophical difficulty would be unavoidably made: the relationship between “practice” and “theory” of the media social movement cannot be well clarified because the two independent media do not carry out their social movement practices based on a single fixed theory or principle. On the contrary, they are developing their activisms independently and realizing their activistic ideas on the media movements based on the ongoing development of the Chinese societies in a flexible way. This fact reminds us it is crucial to construct a new alternative approach to understanding the vicissitudinous nature of the evolution of the human realm. The so-called “scientific” approaches, such as establishing a theoretical model, standardizing the understanding on particular phenomena, using the statistics and inductive reasoning, naming the “known”, etc., are all the means to exclude what the things “cannot be understood”, to pass over what we actually care about from our sight. Therefore, it can be expected that our new understanding approach would not be developed with the logic of exclusion.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

“Open Structure”: The Contemporary Interpretation of Daoism Inspired by the Media Movement (27)

According to Needham’s opinion, Chinese people tend to see the Nature as “an organism”. In addition, Yu adds the “mankind and the whole creation is a single entire body” idea is a basic understanding of the Chinese on the fundamental relationship between the Nature and human beings. These arguments, which reveal how the Chinese views the so-called “others”, suggest the essence of the development of Chinese traditional culture is totally different from that of the Western civilization. At the beginning, Chinese people do not place themselves higher than other lives and does not see the Nature as “a mechanism” or a passive existence for humanity. On the contrary, they generally believe that all creatures on earth, including themselves, are part of the Nature and have their lives based on the Nature’s nurture. From the point of view of the Chinese, the Nature is not the “others”, but is the essential base of the development of the whole creation. This fundamental stance on the Nature with the logics of equalitarianism and of “non-exclusion”, in fact, is compatible with Daoism’s worldview and philosophical outlook. This finding does encourage us to develop a new and open thinking approach to deconstructing the “complexity” of present human civilization and to tackling the challenge of globalization.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

“Open Structure”: The Contemporary Interpretation of Daoism Inspired by the Media Movement (26)

For the second point, we have understood, by following the perspective of anti-globalization movement, that global powers’ political consensus for the unlimited expansion of the rich’s wealth is the core problem of the present human civilization. This is related to the “firm belief” of “having no relationship with the ‘others’”, or called “exceptionalism”, and egoism of the alienated human beings. According to our study, we realize that many popular ideologies which are directing human development are mostly produced by the West, especially the U.S. and its allies. Through colonialism and imperialism, the abstracts had been propagated to the East, affecting the historic development of modern China. Nevertheless, it should be noted that Chinese traditional culture, originally, does not view the Nature as the “others”, dissimilar to the Western civilization fed by the egoistic and exceptionalistic logics:

Joseph Needham (李約瑟) argues that Chinese people see the Nature as an organism, not a mechanism. This opinion is generally acceptable. …For explaining the relationship between humans and the Nature, we perhaps can use this description: ‘mankind and the whole creation is a single entire body (人與天地萬物為一體)’ to conclude the basic opinion of the Chinese on this issue. [1]

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

[1] See: Yu, Ying Shih (1999). The Modern Interpretation of Chinese Thought Tradition. Taipei: Linking. p. 22.

“Open Structure”: The Contemporary Interpretation of Daoism Inspired by the Media Movement (25)

About the first point, we have argued that there is a significant position of the Chinese thinking tradition in modern China based on the analytic discussion on Yu’s theory of “introversive” Chinese culture. According to Yu, the “Three Teachings” has affected the qualitative development of Chinese traditional civilization and Chinese people’s thinking logic. Among the three, Buddhism had been propagated to China from India since the Han period. Then, the religious thought entered into the long-term process of localization with Chinese traditional culture and became a rooted philosophy which affects the custom and way of life of the Chinese. Confucianism, according to our argument, has been intentionally promoted by the ruling as one of the main values of Chinese society since the ancient because it has a strong character of moral teaching, integrating family, society and state as one hierarchical imaginative structure that benefits the continuation of the dominance of political power over people. Although Daoism could have a role in contributing to the forming of the “introversiveness”, the thinking tradition is not valued by the upper because of its “renouncing the present” character.

Since the Chinese Economic Reform started from the late 1970s, capitalism (called “socialism with Chinese characteristics” by the Communist Party), materialism and utilitarianism (e.g. Deng’s “cat’s colour” theory) had become the invasive ideologies which were and are weakening the influential position of the “Three Teachings”, directing the development of Chinese society and making various impacts on the people’s life. For this, many do have reflection on the situation. For example, a counteracting social force against any capitalistic developments has emerged: the independent media activisms in Hong Kong and Taiwan have a clear stance on opposing the monopolization of public space deterring people from publicizing their dissenting voices with the Daoist characteristics. This finding justifies the substantial influence of the Chinese thinking tradition on the development of Chinese civilization in globalization, evidencing that “ancient China” and “modern China” are not separate, but should be seen as a single coherent civilization current in human society. Of course, it seems the westernization (or “americanization”) of modern China is going to be deepened. However, Chinese traditional culture still plays a significant role as a catalyzing force in pushing the developing of the nature of the Chinese nowadays. This reminds us it is necessary to construct a new perspective to view and evaluate the present westernizing Chinese world and the significant influence of Chinese thinking tradition on the modern society at the same level: we should have an impartial attitude toward the nature of Chinese traditional civilization and the “usefulness” of the Western thinking logic and ought not to follow the “mainstream” to exaggerate the Western intellect is “overwhelming” the Chinese spirit. In fact, the global rise of anti-globalization movement has clearly told that the present human civilization under the West’s control has its serious dilemma for all people around the world.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

“Open Structure”: The Contemporary Interpretation of Daoism Inspired by the Media Movement (24)

Besides responding to political powers’ ideological manipulation, the social activism contributed by the Hong Kong and Taiwan independent media reminds people to have more commitment to thinking and changing the social reality not based on the filtered information fed by the “top” but grounded upon their own knowledge and cultural logic. This humanist spirit helps us open up two important thinking approaches to furthering the scope of our research:

(1) The two independent media’s activistic characteristics reflect the crucial role of the Chinese traditional thought – Daoism in influencing the ongoing shaping of modern China;

(2) The media movement practices encourage us to produce a new theory called “Open Structure” to try to deconstruct the closed human consciousness bound by power and greed, which represents the irrational face of the “spiritual beings”, in order to respond to the dilemma of the present civilization of humanity. In fact, the theory of “Open Structure” is a modern interpretation of Daoism.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

“Open Structure”: The Contemporary Interpretation of Daoism Inspired by the Media Movement (23)

As we can see, the manipulation of ideology has been a “universal” political operation in both Chinese and Western civilizations. However, the nature of this operation is against “Dao”, negatively impacting the constructive development of human society as a whole. On this issue, the Nature does have its clear position: the rise of anti-globalization movement around the globe is one of the representative examples embodying the natural “ecology” of humanity. The global social movement, which reflects the spirit of reverting to the life based on people’s real need, opposes the artificial growth of power and greed and helps reveal the character of the ideological manipulation against the establishment of the “ideal world”. Today, human society is still one of the worlds relying on the nurture of the Nature, not the “remote place” out of the Nature. When we explore the modern human reality without wearing the anthropocentric classes, we would understand that the ongoing wars and conflicts between races, religions and interest groups with natural “disasters” and other extreme phenomena are just the sincere outcome of the existentiality of “Dao” rearranging the problematic human civilization.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

Translation: Briefing Anarchism

原文:

anarchism is the refusal of domination; it is the refusal of a society where man dominates man.

anarchism rejects capitalism; anarchism rejects communism; because capitalism and communism are both dominations of human beings over nature. anarchism refuses to dominate nature.

anarchism, therefore, is the rejection of domination of the superpowers of the world; of domination of developed countries over under-developed countries; of domination of the city over the country.

All our civilization has been based on the domination of man over nature.

anarchism is therefore trying to supersede our present civilization based on that domination.

it is a society without any form whatever of dominations. the domination of intellectuals over students and the masses; the domination of men over women; the domination of adults over children; the domination of one particular form of art over other forms of art.

anarchism is therefore the liberation and expansion of all possible forms of human potentialities, that is to say, the expansion of human sexualities; of human feelings; of human intelligence; and everything that is in nature and not only what is human.

the present contents millions of possible futures and the anarchist’ s conception of the present, is not just to look at present with the vision of the past, but also with the vision of possible futures and desirable futures.[1]

譯文:

略說無政府

無政府係對宰制的拒絕, 它拒絕一個由人宰制人的社會.

無政府反對資本主義; 無政府也反對共產主義; 因為資本主義和共產主義都主張人對自然的宰制. 無政府拒絕宰制自然.

所以, 無政府是一種反對世界霸權宰制世界的立場; 是一種反對已開發國家宰制低度開發國家的立場; 是一種反對都市宰制鄉村的立場.

我們的文明已經變成一種建基於人宰制自然的產物.

無政府試圖超脫現今這種建基於宰制上的文明.

那會是一個沒有任何宰制形式的社會. 沒有知識份子對學生和群眾的宰制; 沒有男性對女性的宰制; 沒有成人對兒童的宰制; 沒有任何一種藝術形式對其他藝術形式的宰制.

所以, 無政府是人類潛能以所有可能形式的解放與擴張, 那就是說, 一種人類欲望權利的擴張; 一種人類情感的擴張; 一種人類智能的擴張; 自然界的一切不只是為著人類所有而存在.

此刻所包含著發展未來的無數可能性, 以及當今無政府者的理念不只是以過去的視野來關注現在, 其是以可能和可欲的未來視野來關注現在.

[1] 摘自香港黑鳥(Blackbird)樂團「活此一生」(LIVING OUR LIVES)專輯所收錄的其中一首作品 ‘BRIEFING ANARCHISM’(略說無政府)之說文部份。其為法國蒙皮里阿大學(University of Montpelier)政治系教授基爾(Roland Creagh)接受郭達年先生於1985年所做的訪問內容。

“Open Structure”: The Contemporary Interpretation of Daoism Inspired by the Media Movement (22)

By analyzing the unique characteristics of the media movements of “Inmediahk.net” and “Coolloud.org”, we learn that Daoism should not be seen as a Chinese intellectual tradition distant from modern world, but should be understood as a significant thought not only telling the vicissitudinous essence of the existentiality of the Nature and human civilization, but also explaining the present development of modern Chinese society. As mentioned, Confucianism and Buddhism are the other two traditional thoughts of the “Three Teachings” contributing to the “introversiveness” of Chinese society. Tracing back to the history of Chinese philosophy, Confucianism and Daoism were both founded in the Spring and Autumn Period (春秋時代). In the Warring States Period (戰國時代), some dukes, who ostensibly followed the Emperor of Zhou’s (周) ruling, were eager to find out a practical way to strengthen their military power and political influence against the background of the contention of a Hundred Schools of Thought (百家爭鳴). At last, Qin (秦) successfully united the Central Plains of China by using Legalism (Fajia法家) as its commanding principle. After the Qin period, different dynasties developed their own governing tactics based on different thinking traditions. For instance, in Song dynasty Confucianism, again, was conducted by the kings and many advisers as the important spiritual means to stabilize and solidify its governance in the south under the threats of the invasive alien tribes “Liao (遼)”, “Xixia (西夏)” and “Jin (金)” in the north. All in all, it is not difficult to find out example in Chinese history to justify the knowledge: power always uses various abstracts and ideologies to numb people’s spirit in order to maintain its dominance.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

“Open Structure”: The Contemporary Interpretation of Daoism Inspired by the Media Movement (21)

Therefore, the development of independent media activism, which focuses on opposing all dominating powers using ideologies or pseudo-theories to make the globalized world under control, is shining, embodying the core value of anti-globalization movement. As we argue, the media social movement develops its unique practice approach based on the use of the Internet, trying to report and clarify the social reality with people’s perspective for people themselves. Through the above chapters, we discover that the media movement practice is popular not only in the West but also in the Chinese societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Despite different beliefs and ideas between Chinese and Western media activists, their real-time communication, information exchange and connection beyond political border proves that independent media around the world are working together, having a close relationship with their counterparts for enriching the quality of anti-globalization movement collectively – the 2005 “Anti-WTO Movement” in Hong Kong is a very good example. This completely reflects our theory: independent media activisms in different countries do have a common value of fighting against the domination of power across the globe. This important value would not be eroded because power is always the core issue of the realization of human well-being revealed by the social activists.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

“Open Structure”: The Contemporary Interpretation of Daoism Inspired by the Media Movement (20)

In globalization, world superpowers, such as the U.S., gain huge interest from the result of the propagation of the “laissez-faire economy” and “neo-liberalism”; in China, the Communist Party realizes its authoritarian governance by promoting the Confucian thinking. In the complex globe, political powers have a very clear attempt to use various empty ideologies to guarantee their vested interest not to be judged[1]; On the Chinese lands, Confucianism is evolving into a closed moral system to control people’s thinking and behaviour, to help establish the so-called “harmonious society” for the ruling by the same logic. To speak directly, Confucianism, like capitalism, commercialism, scientism, human egoism, etc., has become an instrument, an ideology to direct the tendency of human intellectual development nowadays. Despite the “neutrality” of the abstracts, the “manipulators” would try to draw the focus of the public away from the “complicated” social reality by criticizing the “false” essence of the abstracts if their propagation causes “unwanted outcomes” (e.g. unable to help reach their specific political or economic goals), by denying any responsibility for the propagation they did through mass media, deterring people’s will from reflecting on other possible alternatives for the development of human civilization. This is a very typical tactic of all rulings to maintain their dominance over the entire world.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

[1] In fact, the rooting of the Confucian thinking culture in Chinese society benefits not only the Communist Party of China, but also the Western powers because if Chinese people’s mind is not under the “de-facto” spiritual control contributed by the thinking tradition, it is a question that the Communist China can maintain its dictatorial governance on the huge Eastern land till now. Also, the substantial rise of China could be threatening the West’s leading position in the globe. Therefore, Confucian philosophy is so good to be used as a “controller” to let the people tend to “naturally” obey the Communist ruling, to conform to the “world order” set by the West with the consent of the Chinese head.

“Open Structure”: The Contemporary Interpretation of Daoism Inspired by the Media Movement (19)

Therefore, it is sure that since the ancient time the development of Chinese society has been heavily affected by the Confucian thinking with the spirit of the combination of family (家) and nation (國): let nation have family and family have nation in it (國中有家,家中有國) as the fundamental ingredient of an “ideal society” praised by the Chinese traditional thought. The ideological combining of the two essential concepts in Chinese people’s mind has facilitated the construction of a tightly-structured Chinese society, supporting the well operation of the unmovable dynastic ruling apparatus on the land for two thousand years. The making of the Chinese mind reflects that Confucianism has played a crucial role in solidifying the basic structure of Chinese family in society and in guaranteeing the “smooth” domination of the feudal political mechanism in the Chinese territory. This observational point explains why “praising Confucianism” as a kind of political operation was remaining in ancient China, despite dynastic changes. We can use this knowledge to further clarify why there were fewer bottom-up subversive movements being carried out by common people in China before the Xinhai Revolution in 1911: it is because Chinese society is deeply influenced by the closed Confucian culture. The form of this “introversive” social character is, according to our understanding context, artificial because it is made by the dominating class for maintaining the so-called “stable/harmonized” situation (維穩) of the society. At this point, Confucianism has fully become a practical instrument to help the power realize such political goal.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

“Open Structure”: The Contemporary Interpretation of Daoism Inspired by the Media Movement (18)

Since Tang dynasty, the “Keju” system had been a general political arrangement for selecting intellectuals for the ruling. Under the system, all people who took the “Keju” examination must fulfill the basic requirement: to master all test contents set by the authorities. Here, it is obvious that there was a political attempt of the ruling to use the Confucian classics as a “re-education” production – the moral teachings like “respecting the king (尊王)” and “knowing courtesy (知「禮」‘li’)”, for example, could help the dynastic power to strengthen its domination by solidifying the existing social class categorization and family structure. For the king, this was a very “positive” means for their ruling. However, the continual operation of the “Keju”, undoubtedly, had its negative impact on the civilizational development of Chinese society. For instance, the Confucian spirit emphasized by the “Keju” firstly was strangling the possibility of knowledge enlightenment in the traditional Chinese civilization: the abilities of intellectuals were restricted within the framework for the “Confucian kingdom” construction, hammering away at interpreting the “exact” meaning of the classics written by the old men that the fresh brains had no room to develop any innovative theories to initiate the possible approach to social and even political civilization on the Chinese soil. In order to please the power, some intellectuals would distortedly interpret the Confucian thinking by emphasizing the contents related to “the lower should respect the upper” and by ignoring the important parts telling “the king should respect ‘li’ for people” in the classics. This trend marked the origin of the alienation of Confucianism and destroyed the power consciousness balance between the lower and the upper in the ancient, helping expand the power of the dominating and at the same time suppress people’s natural life. Here is the core explanation: Confucianism proposes the king ought to obey “li” and know “disgrace (chi恥)” (knowing disgrace is the same as having bravery [Zhongyong] 知恥近乎勇 [中庸][1]), being the “ideal model” of the ruled. However, it is in fact not important whether the king did obey the moral principle – only if the ruled obeyed the principle, the sustainability of the stable governance of state could be realized. Under the Confucian umbrella, the ruler could do anything that would not be challenged by the people obeying “li”. That is to say, the society could be “stable” while most people followed the Confucian principle, even if the king had been corrupted. Therefore, corruption, from the ancient to the modern, is always a very serious problem in Chinese politics that the negative effect of the alienated understanding on the Confucian has had its contribution to the problematic because the ruling understands and makes use of the effectiveness of the promotion of the traditional spirit for social and political stabilization. Against this historical background, most Chinese people had been domesticated and suffering from the political propagation of the Confucian that weakens their social activistic consciousness for the realization of the well-being. In the early twentieth century, the “China” eventually ended its feudal political running guaranteed by the alienated Confucian culture because of the rise of Western civilization across the world.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

[1] Ibid., http://ctext.org/liji/zhong-yong

“Open Structure”: The Contemporary Interpretation of Daoism Inspired by the Media Movement (17)

Besides, we discover that from the Sui隋/Tang唐 to the Qing the Chinese national examination system (Keju科舉) was set to be using the Confucian classics, including Sishu四書: Lunyu論語, Mengzi孟子, Daxue大學 and Zhongyong中庸 and Wujing五經: Shijing詩經, Shangshu尚書, Liji禮記, Zhouyi周易 and Chunqiu春秋as the standard test contents to examine the abilities of candidates for national talents selection for the dynastic hierarchy, showing that the spirit of Confucianism had been deepened by the political operation of the examination system continuously pushed by the ancient kings in the long-term development of Chinese intellectual civilization.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

“Open Structure”: The Contemporary Interpretation of Daoism Inspired by the Media Movement (16)

Confucianism has a very strong character of asking people to obey the moral principles it promotes. For instance, the self-reflection for “Ren (仁)” (“To subdue one’s self and return to propriety, is perfect virtue. [Yanyuan] 克己復禮為仁 [顏淵]”[1]) and relying upon oneself for an ideal world (“Their persons being cultivated, their families were regulated. Their families being regulated, their states were rightly governed. Their states being rightly governed, the whole kingdom was made tranquil and happy. [Daxue] 修身、齊家、治國、平天下 [大學]”[2]) are well-known representatives. Here, the point is most Confucian thinking are so easy to be misled or misunderstood as dogma for asking people to swallow all unreasonables in the socio-political reality, helping the ruling to achieve the “stable control” on the soil. Through the thousands-year history of the “China”, it is not difficult to discover that the Confucian were used by the past dynasties’ rulers for strengthening their domination by advocating the spirit of Confucianism. The evidences are shown here: in the Western Han, Dong Zhongshu’s (董仲舒) “ousting hundred doctrines, the dominant Confucianism (罷黜百家,獨尊儒術)” was accepted by the king as national developing policy; the Confucian doctrines were further refined and revived by Zhu Xi (朱熹) and Wang Yangming (王陽明) in the Song and the Ming, known as the development of Neo-Confucianism (宋明理學). Moreover, in the modern the Communist party of China had reaffirmed the socio-cultural status of Confucianism after the Cultural Revolution – in which the famous slogan “Destroy the Confucius Shop! (打倒孔家店)” was so popular that was firstly propagated by Chen Duxiu in the New Culture Movement (新文化運動). Through the worldwide establishment of the “Confucius Institute (孔子學院)”, the ruling party is intentionally expanding its politico-cultural influence on global academia with the “smart” Confucian flag.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

[1] Retrieved 13 June, 2013, from the website of “Chinese Text Project (based on James Legge’s translation)”: http://ctext.org/analects/yan-yuan

[2] Ibid., http://ctext.org/liji/da-xue

“Open Structure”: The Contemporary Interpretation of Daoism Inspired by the Media Movement (15)

As we can see, the “Three Teachings” have their distinctive theoretical connotations with different size of epistemological dimensions. However, the Teachings, at the same time, have a similar perspective on improving the spiritual quality of human beings: men need to further refine and enhance their spirit, intellect and personality, contributing to the form of the “introversive” character of the Chinese collectively. For example, Confucianism promotes men should do more positive to become a “sage” (Shengren聖人) or a person of noble character and integrity (Junzi君子); to be a man living in the “enjoyment of untroubled ease (逍遙遊)” is a common goal for the Daoists; Buddhism wants all people to be in the “Nirvana”, to depart from the “Six Domains” eventually completely. Obviously, the requirements listed by the “Three Teachings” are all spiritual that cannot be got in the external world, but can only be fulfilled in our brain. These teachings, through education, are strengthening the self-disciplined consciousness of the people, solidifying the “introversiveness” of Chinese culture from the ancient to the present. Generally speaking, the making of the “introversive” benefits the Chinese ruling class because it facilitates social stability: the “introversive” people tend to find out the “solution” from their own personality and character, but not to consider what the real cause(s) of life difficulties made by any external forces, such as political power. Through the above examination on the characters of the “Three Teachings”, we can have an understanding that Daoism and Buddhism may not directly facilitate the Chinese authorities’ governance over the society because the two do not encourage people to persist in having an active position in the “present world”, but do persuade the ones to “renounce the world”. However, Confucianism, as the most influential thought among the three, plays an extremely crucial role in helping political power to maintain its domination over the Chinese land.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)

“Open Structure”: The Contemporary Interpretation of Daoism Inspired by the Media Movement (12)

In the dilemma, power still refuses to reflect on the serious globalization issues but conspires with the alienated forces empowered by capitalism and human egoism. Therefore, we cannot expect that the political and economic players would have goodwill to play an active role in tackling the negative alienation in world society. To speak directly, the powers have the reason not to deal with the alienated situation because it is made by them for protecting their self-interest and for maintaining their dominant position under the name of “national” or “public” interest.

As we can see, capitalism and human egoism are both the “powerful” means used by the West to direct the world’s civilization development in globalization. Against this background, economic globalization, commonly known as “globalization”, becomes a fresh ideology of packaging the vested interests’ attempt to continue the manipulation of natural and human resources on the earth. For this, our silence would be simply interpreted as “approval” for the difficult artificial situation. That is why the rise of anti-globalization movement is present.

(See: The Theory and Practice of Anti-Globalization Movement: Case Studies of the Independent Media in the Chinese Societies – Hong Kong and Taiwan. Bonn: Bonn University. 2014)